URBAN RESILIENCE PATTERNS AFTER AN EXTERNAL SHOCK: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY
Resilience has in recent years become an established concept in dynamic systems analysis. It is also increasingly employed in dynamic spatial systems, such as cities. The present paper offers an evidence of resilience of urban systems after an external shock. It pays particular attention to natural disasters affecting a city´s system. A typology of different types of disasters and of related damage is presented, from a global perspective on the regional occurrence of such calamities. The cost and recovery potential after an external shock are statistically explored. It comes out that population size and density are critical parameters for the order of magnitude of disaster damage. The comprehensive approach to risk assessment, identification and management proposed in the paper serves to depict a desirable urban resilience pattern after an external shock.
Keywords: resilience, vulnerability, external shock, urbanization, urban resilience pattern.
Peter Nijkamp is emeritus Professor in regional and urban economics and in economic geography at the VU University, and connected to the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden) and A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan (Poland). He is member of editorial/advisory boards of more than 30 journals. According to the RePec list he belongs to the top-30 of well-known economists world-wide. He is also a fellow of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences, and past vice-president of this organization. He has served as president of the governing board of the Netherlands Research Council (NWO). In 1996, he was awarded the most prestigious scientific prize in the Netherlands, the Spinoza award.
Politecnico di Milano, President Gremi
Roberto Camagni is Full Professor of Urban Economics at the Politecnico di Milano. Director of the research group on Regional and Urban Economics. He is expert in regional and urban development, territorial diffusion of technology and innovation, assessment of urban transformation processes; in these fields he has carried out researches for the European Union, the OECD, the French Ministère de l‘Equipement, the Department for Community Policies of the Presidency Council and a number of Regions and Municipalities in Italy and Europe. Recently, he developed the Report on „The cities in Europe: globalization, cohesion, sustainability“ drawn up by the Italian Government during the Italian EU Presidency (1996). He was president of the European Regional Science Association (ERSA), of AISRe (Italian Association of Regional Science) and Vice President of the Group of Urban Affairs of the OECD. He is currently president of the Guilds (Groupe Européen de Recherche sur les Milieux Innovateurs), an international network of scholars based at the Sorbonne in Paris, which analyzes the local areas of innovation, and member of the Scientific Committee of the DATAR Paris. He participated in the construction of the Strategic Plans of several Italian and foreign cities. He is the author of about 150 international scientific publications and a manual of Urban Economics, translated into French and Spanish languages.
Full Professor in Economics & Management of Innovation
EPFL – École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
Dominque Foray is Full Professor in Economics and Management of Innovation at École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. From 2008 to 2011, Foray served as chairman of the expert group “Knowledge for Growth”; a group of prominent economists created to advise Commissioner J. Potocnik (European Commission, DG research). By this time he developed the concept of smart specialisation, together with P.A.David, B.Hall and B. van Ark. This concept has been operationalized in the framework of cohesion and regional policy in the EU and was the base of a large scale industrial policy experiment in most European regions. From 2012 to 2015, he was a member of the German Commission for Research and Innovation (E-FI), he has been active in various panels of experts in international organisations – UNCTAD, UN ECE, UN – about development and global public goods issues and he is a foreign member of the Center of Capitalism and Society (Columbia University, New York). He is strongly involved in various activities of the State Secretariat for research and innovation (Switzerland) and currently member of ESIR (European Commission).
Associate Professor of Economic Geography
Tom Broakel is Associate Professor of Economic Geography at University of Utrecht (NL). He has obtained a PhD in Economics from the Friedrich- Schiller-University of Jena in 2008. He received his Habilitation in Economic Geography from the Leibniz University of Hannover in 2015. In the past, he has been working as a research fellow at the Max-Planck-Institute of Economics in Jena. From 2008-2011, he was a post-doc in the Department of Economic Geography at Utrecht University. Subsequently, he became a Juniorprofessor at Leibniz University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Institute of Economic and Cultural Geography in Hannover from 2011-2016. Since 2017, he is Associate Professor in Economic Geography at Utrecht University. His research is focused on geography of innovation, knowledge networks, analysis of R&D policy, methods of social network analysis, regional innovation systems, renewable energies, tourism. His publications include a text book and 30 articles in refereed journals.
Ingenio CSIC-UPV. Joint research institute of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC) and the Polytechnic University of Valencia (UPV)
Pedro Marques is a researcher at INGENIO, a joint research centre sponsored by the Spanish National Research Council and the Polytechnic University of Valencia. He is the principal investigator in a project investigating innovation dynamics in peripheral regions of Spain and Portugal, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness. In the past he has worked at the Centre for Urban and Regional Development Studies (CURDS) at Newcastle University (UK), at the University of Kiel (Germany), at Cardiff University (UK) and at the University of Sussex (UK). At Cardiff University he worked in the FP7 funded project Smart Spec, investigating the design of smart specialisation strategies across Europe. Overall his research interests are in the fields of innovation (particularly in less developed regions), on the political economy of development, on governance and politics, and on social innovation. Pedro has a degree in Sociology from ISCTE in Lisbon (Portugal) and an MA in Regional Development and PhD in Economic Geography from Newcastle University (UK).
Senior Scientist JRC – European Commission
Joint Research Center European Commission
Gabriel Rissola is Senior Scientist at the Joint Research Centre, the in-house science service of the European Commission (2010-2012 and 2016 on). He has a degree in Informatics, academic education in Philosophy and Psychology and extensive professional experience with multilateral cooperation bodies (European Commission, United Nations agencies, World Bank). In between his assignments at the EC, he has been Managing Director of Telecentre-Europe aisbl (a Brussels-based European membership association, now “All Digital”) (2012-2016). Previously he has ruled Dynamic Organization Thinking (D-O-T), a Barcelona-based Research & Consultancy firm he had co-founded in 2006, also being an external Evaluator for the Lifelong Learning programme of the European Commission (2004-2010); European Projects Officer for the Foundation of Viladecans City (2005-2008); Senior Expert & Evaluator at UNs’ Food and Agricultural Organization (1990-1991 and 2002-2008); digital media & eLearning entrepreneur (1999-2003), and a strategist (Internet first-mover) and middle manager in the telecom industry during the nineties. His current research interests fall under the domain of Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) policies, with a focus on place-based innovation ecosystems, open innovation 2.0 and R&I collaborative models (e.g. QH), digital innovation hubs (DIH), digital social innovation (DSI) and Impact Evaluation. He has authored/co-authored/edited several publications and has been a reviewer for the Journal of International Development and Information Technologies (USA).
Professor and Researcher – APEC Study Center
University of Colima, Mexico – APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) Study Center
Visiting Scientist at the Directorate General Joint Research Centre of the European Commission within the Smart Specialisation Platform team
Jürgen Haberleithner holds a PHD in Political Science (in the field of International Relations) from the University of Vienna, Austria and a Mag. Phil. in Journalism and Communication Science from the same university. Since 2010, he is full time Professor and Researcher at the APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) Study Centre (https://portal.ucol.mx/cueicp2/) which is part of the public University of Colima, Mexico. From late 2016, he is a Visiting Scientist at the Directorate General Joint Research Centre of the European Commission within the Smart Specialisation Platform team (S3P, http://s3platform.jrc.ec.europa.eu), which is part of the Territorial Development Unit. His main topics of interest are Science Diplomacy, Smart Specialisation and Science and Innovation Diasporas Worldwide. In the S3P team, he develops the Smart Specialisation Worldwide Section. He has recently carried out an exploratory study for the Office of Science and Technology Austria (OSTA) of the Austrian Embassy in the USA about the Austrian research and innovation diaspora in North America (http://www.ascina.at/blog/2018/01/osta-exploratory-study-moglichkeiten-zur-direkten-und-strategischen-vernetzung-im-berei/). He is also Head of the chapter Mexico of the Austrian Scientists and Scholars in North America diaspora association (ASCINA, ascina.at).